Informes
Evaluacion I.A.
Blog
Leyes Ambientales & Higiene y Seguridad
Toxicologia Amb.
Normas ISO & OSHAS
Informativo
Articulos
Videos
 

Buscador

Consultora
Cursos
Newspaper
Consultoras
Foro
Operadores
Links
Libro de visitas
Seccion Laboral

  Inicio » Informes » Evaluación y tratamiento de la contaminación del aire » Evaluación y tratamiento de la contaminación del aire » Composición del Aire
 


EL AIRE

 

PROPIEDADES FISICAS Y QUIMICAS DEL AIRE

 

PROPIEDADES FISICAS

 

  • Es de menor peso que el agua.
  • Es de menor densidad que el agua.
  • Tiene Volumen indefinido.
  • No existe en el vacío.
  • Es incoloro, inodoro e insípido.

 

QUIMICAS

 

  • Reacciona con la temperatura condensándose en hielo a bajas temperaturas y produce corrientes de aire.
  • Esta compuesto por varios elementos entre ellos el oxigeno (O2) y el dioxido de carbono elementos básicos para la vida.

 

COMPOSICION DEL AIRE PURO

 

De acuerdo con la altitud, composición, temperatura y otras características, la atmósfera que rodea a la Tierra y comprende las siguientes capas o regiones:

 

  1. Troposfera. Alcanza una altura media de 12 km. (es de 7km. En los polos y de 16km. En los trópicos) y en ella encontramos, junto con el aire, polvo, humo y vapor de agua, entre otros componentes.
  2. Estratosfera. Zona bastante mente fría que se extiende de los 12 a los 50km de altura; en su capa superior (entre los 20 y los 50km) contiene gran cantidad de ozono (O3), el cual es de enorme importancia para la vida en la tierra por que absorbe la mayor parte de los rayos ultravioleta del sol.
  3. Mesosfera. Zona que se sitúa entre los 50 y los 100km de altitud; su temperatura media es de 10 °C; en ella los meteoritos adquieren altas temperaturas y en su gran mayoría se volatilizan y consumen..
  4. Ionosfera. Empieza después de los 100km. Y va desapareciendo gradualmente hasta los 500km de altura. En esta región, constituida por oxígeno (02), la temperatura aumenta hasta los 1000°C; los rayos X y ultravioleta del Sol ionizan el aire enrarecido, produciendo átomos y moléculas cargados eléctricamente (que reciben el nombre de iones) y electrones libres.
  5. Exosfera. Comienza a 500km. de altura y extiende más allá de los 1000km; está formada por una capa de helio y otra de hidrogeno. Después de esa capa se halla una enorme banda de radiaciones (conocida como magnetosfera) que se extiende hasta unos 55000km de altura , aunque no constituye propiamente un estrato atmosférico.

 

El aire limpio y puro forma una capa de aproximadamente 500 000 millones de toneladas que rodea la Tierra, de las su composición es la siguiente:

 

 

Componente

Concentración aproximada

  1. Nitrógeno
(N) 78.03% en volumen
  • Oxígeno
  • (O) 20.99% en volumen
  • Dióxido de Carbono
  • (CO2) 0.03% en volumen
  • Argón
  • (Ar) 0.94% en volumen
  • Neón
  • (Ne) 0.00123% en volumen
  • Helio
  • (He) 0.0004% en volumen
  • Criptón
  • (Kr) 0.00005% en volumen
  • Xenón
  • (Xe) 0.000006% en volumen
  • Hidrógeno
  • (H) 0.01% en volumen
  • Metano
  • (CH4) 0.0002% en volumen
  • Óxido nitroso
  • (N2O) 0.00005% en volumen
  • Vapor de Agua
  • (H2O) Variable
  • Ozono
  • (O3) Variable
  • Partículas
  •   Variable

     

    CONTAMINACION ATMOSFERICA.

     

    La contaminación del aire es uno de los problemas ambientales más importantes, y es resultado de las actividades del hombre. Las causas que originan esta contaminación son diversas, pero el mayor índice es provocado por las actividades industriales, comerciales, domesticas y agropecuarias.

     

    Los principales contaminantes del aire se clasifican en:

     

    PRIMARIOS

     

    Son los que permanecen en la atmósfera tal y como fueron emitidos por la fuente. Para fines de evaluación de la calidad del aire se consideran: óxidos de azufre, monóxido de carbono, óxido de nitrógeno, hidrocarburos y partículas.

     

    SECUNDARIOS

    Son los que han estado sujetos a cambios químicos, o bien, son el producto de la reacción de dos o más contaminantes primarios en la atmósfera. Entre ellos destacan oxidantes fotoquímicos y algunos radicales de corta existencia como el ozono (O3).

     

    A nivel nacional, la contaminación atmosférica se limita a las zonas de alta densidad demográfica o industrial. Las emisiones anuales de contaminantes en el país son superiores a 16 millones de toneladas, el 65% es de origen vehiculaar.

    En la ciudad de México se genera 23.6% de dichas emisiones, en Guadalajara el 3.5%, y en Monterrey el 3%. Los otros centros industriales del país generan el 70% restante.

     

    PARTES POR MILLON (PPM)

     

    Para determinar la concentración de una substancia química en un volumen se utilizan las partes por millón de partes iguales. Cada millonésima parte de este volumen, correspondiente a la substancia de nuestro interés, se considera una parte por millón de la substancia.

     

    Las PPM se utilizan para determinar concentraciones muy pequeñas de gases en la atmósfera.

     

    PARTES POR BILLON (PPB)

     

    Para determinar la concentración de substancia química en un volumen se utilizan las partes por billón. Se divide el volumen en un billón de partes iguales. Cada billonésima parte de este volumen, correspondiente a la substancia de nuestro interés, se considera una parte por billón de la substancia.

     

    Las PPM se utilizan para determinar concentraciones muy pequeñas de gases en la atmósfera.

     

     

    PARTICULAS SUSPENDIDAS EN SU FRACCION RESPIRABLE (PM-10)

     

    • Criterios para evaluar la calidad del aire

    150 ug/m³ (microgramos sobre metro cubico) en un promedio de 24 horas.

     

    • Características del contaminante
  • Partícula sólidas o líquidas dispersas en la atmósfera (su diámetro va de 0.3 a 10 um) como polvo, cenizas, hollín, partículas metálicas, cemento o polen. La fracción respirable de PST, conocida como PM-10, está constituida por aquellas partículas de diámetro es inferior a 10 micras, que tienen la particularidad de penetrar en el aparato respiratorio hasta los alvéolos pulmonares.
    • Fuentes principales
  • Combustión industrial y doméstica del carbón, combustóleo y diesel; procesos industriales; incendios; erosión eólica y erupciones volcánicas.
    • Efectos principales

     

  •  
  •  
  • Salud: Irritación en la vías respiratorias; su acumulación en los pulmones origina enfermedades como silicosis y la asbestosis. Agravan el asma y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.
  • Materiales: Deterioro en materiales de construcción y otras superficies.

    Vegetación: Interfieren en la fotosíntesis.

    Otros: Disminuyen la visibilidad y provocan la formación de nubes.

  • En general los principales contaminantes como: Monóxido de carbono, Ozono, Dióxido de Nitrógeno, Dióxido de Azufre, Hidrocarburos, plomo, y otros provocan demasiados problemas estos se miden en grados imecas lo cual se explicará después del cuadro de los contaminantes.

    Unidades Empleadas para el Monitoreo de la Calidad del Aire

     

     

     

    PARÁMETRO

    CLAVE

    UNIDAD

    RED

    Monóxido de Carbono

    CO

    PPM

     
    Dióxido de azufre

    SO2

    PPM

     
    Dióxido de nitrógeno

    NO2

    PPM

    MONITOREO AUTOMATICO

    Ozono

    O3

    PPM

     
    Oxido de nitrógeno

    NOX

    PPM

     
    Acido sulfhídrico

    H2S

    PPM

     
    Partículas menores a 10 micras

    PM-10

    ug/m³

     
    Partículas suspendidas totalmente

    PST

    ug/m³

     
    Plomo

    Pb

    ug/m³

     
    Cobre

    Cu

    ug/m³

    MONITOREO MANUAL

    Fierro

    Fe

    ug/m³

     
    Cadmio

    Cd

    ug/m³

     
    Níquel

    Ni

    ug/m³

     
    Temperatura

    TMP

    °C

     
    Humedad Relativa

    RH

    % de Hum. Rel

    MONITOREO METEOROLOGICO

    Velocidad del viento

    WSP

    metros por segundo

     
    Dirección del viento

    WDR

    grados

     

     

     

     

    Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del aire

     

    El índice de la calidad del aire, se define como un valor representativo de los niveles de contaminación atmosférica y sus efectos en la salud, dentro de una región determinada.

     

    El IMECA consta de algoritmos de cálculo fundamentales; el primero, para la obtención de subíndices correspondientes a diferentes indicadores de la calidad del aire; y el segundo, para la combinación de éstos en un índice global.

     

     

    El primero involucrara la utilización de funciones segmentadas basadas en dos puntos de quiebra principales. Esos puntos fueron obtenidos a partir de los criterios mexicanos de la calidad del aire, así como de niveles para los que ocurren daños significativos a la salud. Al primero se le asigno el valor de 100 y al segundo de 500; entre estos dos puntos se definieron tres más, cuyo objetivo es clasificar el intervalo en diferentes términos descriptivos de la calidad del aire.

     

    La función principal del IMECA es mantener informada a la población sobre la calidad del aire en la Ciudad de México, así como observar el comportamiento de los distintos contaminantes y comparar la calidad del aire entre zonas que utilicen índices similares.

     

     

    IMECA

    CALIDAD DEL AIRE

    EFECTOS

    0-100

    Satisfactoria. Situación favorable para la realización de todo tipo de actividades.

    101-200

    No Satisfactoria. Aumento de molestias en personas sensibles.

    201-300

    Mala Aumento de molestias e intolerancia relativa al ejercicio.

    301-500

    Muy Mala Aparición de diversos síntomas e intolerancia al ejercicio.

     

     

    IMECA

    Satisfactorio

    No Satisfactorio

    No Satisfactorio

    Malo

     

    0-100

    101-150

    151-200

    201-300

     

     

    OXIGENO Y COMBUSTION

     

    Combustión es sinónimo de oxidación y, como ya se indicó consiste en la unión del oxigeno con la substancia combustible.

     

    Los combustibles pueden ser sólidos, líquidos o gaseosos:

     

    1. Sólidos: carbonos, lignitos, coques, maderas y residuos combustibles de procesos de fabricación.
    2. Líquidos: alcohol, petróleo, sus derivados, y algunas veces breas.
    3. Gases: gas natural (el que sale de la tierra) y gases fabricados con obtenidos principalmente del carbón.

     

    La presencia del oxígeno (gas) pone de manifiesto su propiedad de comburencia. La combinación de este con otros elementos se llama oxidación.

     

    Cuando las oxidaciones son rápidas y generan en poco tiempo gran cantidad de energía calorifica y luminosa, se denominan combustiones. Para que la combustión se realice combustible sustancia que puede arder al combinarse rápidamente con el oxigeno dando como resultado luz y calor, y un comburente, el cual es un elemento o sustancia que al combinarse químicamente con otro, provoca la combustión de este.

     

    SEPARACION DE GASES EN UNA MEZCLA

     

    Una de las características de una mezcla es la de ser una unión aparente y que para comprobar este hecho podemos aplicar diferentes procedimientos de separación de mezclas .

     

     

    Trabajo realizado por: wagner@sisnet.com.mx




    Participa
     Califica el informe Malo Regular Bueno Muy bueno Excelente

      Comentarios publicados (102)
    Este espacio tiene por objeto un intercambio entre la comunidad de lectores de ingenieroambiental.com, desde aqui puedes evacuar tus dudas y/o publicar opiniones respecto al informe.

    angelica araneli sanchez martinez
    (22/02/2005)
    pues no trae mucha informacion al menos esa no es la quie buscaba me quede en mlas mismas y perdon
    Joaquín
    (05/05/2005)
    Si 1 m3 de aire a 1 atm tiene el 23,2% de O2; es decir, 23,2g ¿ Cuantos grms de O2 tiene una masa de aire de 1 m3 a 2 atm? ¿cómo se calcula? gracias.
    Nelly Tatiana
    (12/10/2005)
    CLAUDIA MAGALI HERNÀNDEZ ESPINOSA
    (22/10/2005)
    TIENEN MUY BUENA INFORMACION
    veronica
    (09/02/2006)
    mariana
    (12/03/2006)
    cual es la densidad del aire a 5 grados??
    hector
    (02/04/2006)
    saben k esto es una basura de informacion
    florencia
    (23/08/2006)
    me encanta toda esta informacion
    Leslie
    (27/08/2006)
    lucia
    (29/08/2006)
    me encanto toda la informacion esta se combietio en la mejor pag.
    Jorge
    (17/10/2006)
    Esta informacion está igual(o casi igual) en todas las pajinas que tienen que ver con el tema..
    http://www.google.com/search?client=opera&rls=es-es&q=Unidades+empleadas+para+el+monitoreo+de+la+calidad+del+aire&sourceid=opera&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8
    SI VEN ESTE ENLACE SE PODRAN DAR CUENTA.
    jhon_tc
    (06/11/2006)
    seria bueno poner info sobre conservacion del aire y tratados firmados por paises, eso tb piden
    vanesa
    (24/01/2007)
    tanto el aire que es una mezcla de gasescomo los seres vivos esta formado por atomos y moleculas como explicarias el hecho que el aire no tenga vida y el ser humano si
    SUSANA
    (28/03/2007)
    la información es basica, me pueden informar en q pag. encuentro experiencias de lab. para E.S.B.,
    mauricio
    (11/04/2007)
    Santiegp
    (18/04/2007)
    Justo lo que buscaba!!!
    el choto
    (18/06/2007)
    lo ke buscaba chupenme la pija todos
    federico jose tobaldo castaño
    (03/08/2007)
    yo no soy un adulto, soy un chico de 12 años pero me intereso esto y ademas tenia tarea de esto, esta pagina y su creador me brindo toda la informacion que necesitaba para el colegio, lo felicito al creador y a los portadores de info para la pagina.
    ezequiel
    (06/09/2007)
    ta todo piola lastima q son vastantes paginas para escrivir. asi qq aguante boca loco
    camila andrea
    (07/09/2007)
    kein
    (01/10/2007)
    estoy haciendo un trabajo practico sobre el aire y presiso infornacion espesifica 1)que es el aire 2)como esta formado
    Noelia
    (18/10/2007)
    "helenn" te pensas que vamos a creer que sos de verdad estadounidense?
    qué pelotudés?!!!
    BENJA
    (03/03/2008)
    ESPECTACULAR LA INFORMACION
    pata de lana
    (03/04/2008)
    me muevo a sus mujeres manga de putos
    mariana
    (29/08/2007)
    Mariana
    (29/08/2007)
    hola soy Mariana y aunque tenga solo 11 anios me interesa muchisimo el ambiente y ago lo que este a mi alcanze para cuidarlo y que los demas lo cuden
    el ke t putea
    (01/09/2007)
    ke chupa choto ke son jajajajaj
    helenn
    (01/09/2007)
    hi! i am helenn.I am from usa(united states of american)and i want this page in english...i know that google/yahoo/etc can be traduced but i want THIS INFORMATION......
    ok nice people.don't be so silly please bye
    franceline
    (04/02/2009)
    me parece super bueno y ojala no sigamos deteriorando nuestra capa pero muy buena informacion bn
    sara
    (12/02/2009)
    la informacion sta mb,y,me encanta q alguien d mi edad le preocupe el medio anbiente tanto como a mi, mariana.solo espero q la contaminacion disminuya en estos años,pero para eso tenamos q colaborar todos.chao!!
    anonimo
    (12/02/2009)
    anonimo
    (12/02/2009)
    qien es el creador de esta pagina?
    oscar
    (18/03/2009)
    muy completa...y esos que dicen que no...son unos hijos de puta que no saven que mierda haser...los odio.
    muy buena pagina
    anonimo
    (19/03/2009)
    muy linda la pagina.... espectacular imformacion,muy completa....!!
    americo
    (25/03/2009)
    hola, soy americo y me interesa
    Ignacio
    (02/04/2009)
    eeee la raja la pagina pude hacer mi tarea altiro grax al creador
    maxi
    (02/04/2009)
    gracias me salvaron
    delia
    (02/04/2009)
    pendegos de mierha
    Jennifer
    (06/04/2009)
    me sirvio la info! voy a una scuela fisicoloqimica y la verdad, es basica pero muy buena! grax!
    Dana
    (14/04/2009)
    Muchas gracias! Ayudaron con mi tarea del colegio. :)
    anonimo
    (24/04/2009)
    es una mierdaaaaaaaaaaaaa no se entiende una carajoo necesitamos algo mas facill!!
    Wilber
    (30/04/2009)
    {gracias me ayudó mucho en mi tarea }
    -
    (07/05/2009)
    ivan
    (10/05/2009)
    justoo lo q buscaba !!
    ola
    (15/05/2009)
    oladksaodvc
    agustincito
    (19/05/2009)
    agustincito
    (19/05/2009)
    holaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
    GABYTA
    (01/06/2009)
    viviana
    (05/06/2009)
    weooona estupida de conchetumadre
    patricione
    (05/06/2009)
    esta wua no sirve de na
    PEPA
    (05/06/2009)
    love jonas brothers. el baile de la micaela
    patricio
    (05/06/2009)
    soy gay y que
    amo a los jonas brothers
    Toti passman
    (15/07/2009)
    excelente pero a los maleducados que insultan deberían fusilarlos por imbeciles
    samuel
    (15/07/2009)
    esta muy buena tu pajina de informacion te felicito falta imagenes suerte
    yamil
    (31/08/2009)
    Adrian
    (22/10/2010)
    que wena..!! justo lo que nesecitaba..pero los mal educados que insultan -- malean una pagina tan importante..donde no da a cnocer loq eu nosotros respirasmos..(pedasos de ingnorantes tarados..!!)
    adrian
    (22/10/2010)
    mm..!! sorry--no importa si escribo otra cosa.!! -- Nelly te kiero muchisisimo..!!Vaguita Hermoxa..!!:D
    alexis..adrian..torres..solignac
    (22/10/2010)
    joao Vs. Alexis--Y kien +..? Nelly te kiero muchisisimo..!!Vaguita Hermoxa..!!:D
    marcia casas la locax
    (13/11/2010)
    lorena
    (22/01/2011)
    finoooo consequii mi tarea te amoooo felix
    gabriela
    (22/01/2011)
    te amooo felix finoo consequi mi tarea
    felix
    (22/01/2011)
    iooo tamb te amoo amr ya 1 año y 7 meses de novios te adoroooo
    lorena
    (22/01/2011)
    aiii hermanoo que amor tan grande te kerooo muchotee hermano ii cuñadad
    mierncnnvbvb
    (08/02/2011)
    apestaoooooooooooooooooooookkkkkkkkkkkkkk
    lurdeas
    (08/02/2011)
    apesta oooookkkkkkkkk(.......)
    jancarlos
    (18/02/2011)
    no sirve es el aire no la atmosfera
    aleida
    (18/02/2011)
    no es lo q yo buscaba pero esta muy bien la informacion(*.*)
    banhiaxxx
    (06/05/2011)
    banhiaxx :D
    (06/05/2011)
    xiaaa la bolaitaaa xarxa locko jajajja nomentira la pagina ta superr .. me ayudo mucho en mi trabajoo graxxx
    harol
    (03/06/2011)
    muy buena la informacion
    maryyyyyy!!!!!!!!
    (03/06/2011)
    gusto lo k necesitaba
    nancy
    (19/06/2011)
    AR-CW muebles colector de polvo
    AR-CP de alta presión negativa dus colector
    Auto-limpieza del colector de polvo
    Cartucho de colector de polvo
    Pulso bolsa de casa
    Turbinas de gas filtro
    Filtro para la fundición y martillado
    filtro largo

    Nancy
    Sales Dept.
    Zhangjiagang Aier Environmental Protection Equipment Co,.Ltd
    Email:nancy@airepe.com
    Skype:nancy-air
    Address: Hexing Industry Park,Jinfeng, Zhangjiagang, China
    Website: www.airepe.com
    monica
    (16/01/2012)
    En la primera linea dice inodoro cuando debe decir inoloro
    VALERIA PUTA
    (08/02/2012)
    son unos pendejos que brutos inutiles jajaja me ayudaron mamones que estupidos ni yo ubiera hecho eso jaja son unos putos que la fregada pinches weyes hojos de su puta madre ¡¡¡que la chingada¡¡¡
    polici
    (08/02/2012)
    yo se a donde vives jovencito
    carlos el policia
    (08/02/2012)
    el que escio que era un policia la ba a pagar atte carlos omar sanchez reinozo
    Louis Vuitton UK
    (17/04/2012)
    Welcome to order Discount Louis Vuitton UK and lead a fashionable, luxury and elegant life from our Louis Vuitton Canada Outlet Store. Enjoy the shopping now here!The Louis Vuitton Handbags reflect the class of the person holding them, as people are extremely conscious of their personality portraLouis Vuitton Outlets offer famous classic brand for LV,Channel, with perfect service.So become to the VIP soon.They offer more new styles,like LV purses,LV wallets etc. And are tested by product quality monitoring center .
    Your bridesmaids will love the jewelry at the Tiffany And Co and they will look stunning wearing it at your wedding. You can have your bracelets made in any of the Tiffany colors. If you don't see enough options, either call or tell us in the comments section at checkout how we can make yours perfect.Make a statement of fashion and style with this opulent Tiffany Outlet. Its large Indicolite crystal shimmers in vibrant tones of blue. Combine it with the Points of Light pendant and earrings in the same crystal colour for a matching look.Tiffany Jewellery is a worldwide leading manufacturer of precision polished crystal and has stood for highest quality and innovative, as well as classical, design for decades.
    You could feel the top quality with hands promptly while you touch a Louis Vuitton UK. Pay attention that each LV bag is well-produced and meant to last for a lengthy time.LV bags in the Louis Vuitton Outlet are a feminine update on an urban classic. With plenty of room for all of your essentials this covetable carryall will take you through the weekend in style.They also have put their Louis Vuitton Sale to make it more convenient and economical for their customers to buy their goods.
    The high lead content in Tiffany Jewellery UK makes them heavier than standard glass crystals and also increases the index of refraction, which in turn makes them sparkly like diamonds when they come into contact with light.The interplay of light and cut Tiffany And Co Outlet can render effects that underscone the character of the architecture and create individual atmospheres.You will always get surprised by the beautiful colors and perfect details of Tiffany Jewellery.So come on, do not hesitate.
    nike shox oulet
    (22/04/2012)
    Do you like to have on quality foot air max 2012 wear? Which kinds of brand new air max do you like the most? Well, if you know nike air max quality, you must have heard about air max 90 Shoes....Their Jordan high heels provided items and nike high heels famous products are recognized over the globe air jordan heels and thousands of people just love to have their own nike heels shoes!nike shox sale is an universally known brand which is popular for quality foot wears. That is why you can find its women nike shox wears nearly in all foot wear shops and marketplaces. You may go there to have your own comfortable nike shox oulet.
    havbby
    (27/04/2012)
    nike air max has been to inspire nike air max shoes every one of the world's athletes and its nike air max 90 offer the best products as the glorious task cheap nike air max. Nike's language is the language of movement. Three years later cheap nike air max 90, the company cheap nike air max shoes has always been committed to for everyone to create the opportunity to show themselves.Nike knows nike air max online: that the only use of air max shoes advanced technology to produce the best products. It has been, Nike has invested a lot of manpower, material for research and development of the [[new products:air max]]. Nike's first air-cushion technology has mens nike air max brought a revolution to the sports world air max nike mens shoes.Use this technologymens air max to produce sports shoes to protect the athlete's body nike mens air max, especially the ankle and knee to prevent sprain for strenuous exercise nike air max men, reducing the impact and wear womens nike air max and tear on the knee. Athletic shoes with air cushion technology has been introduced very popular. Ordinary consumers and professional athletes love it nike kids air max.
    coach outlet
    (02/05/2012)
    coach outlet has distribution, product development. coach outlet online Store is established to be your home shopping paradise. Eventually, coach outlet would restrict sales to hand-selected vendors. at the Coach Outlet IPO in October 2000, followed in April 2001 with their remaining, While louis vuitton bags have so many changes, there's one thing that doesn't change . louis vuitton wallet in 33 different colors on either a white or black background. See, this is the charm of Air Jordan bags. Nike Air Max achieved their ultimate, cult like status in purses,. There are some multifunction pockets inside these sac louis vuitton. the louis vuitton sac Group's stock in 2003. beats by dre sells headphones products which are moderately priced and yet of good quality. dr dre beats is famous for the discounts it offers. ralph lauren uk bead collection includes both vintage. chanel uk has catered to tastes in items such as simple suits, dresses, women's pants, burberry was the original name, but then the company soon switched. You will find a variety of Men's fashion louis vuitton uklouis vuitton incorporated its leather into most of its products, As we know, louis vuitton uk as we can imagine are a little expensive but are of good quality like. turning gucci uk merchandise into international status symbols. Outside of music, tiffany uk posed nude in Playboy and guest-starred. christian louboutin is very popular all over the world. Louis Vuitton Monogram Canvas shoes and jewelry which is sold at the Coach Outlet. I got the information of Coach Outlet Online from my close friends. most fashionable this fall, consider a glance on Coach Factory OutletCoach Sunglasses shoes and jewelry which is sold at the coach outlet
    pandora
    (04/05/2012)
    Just what more pandora bracelet often than not will it be involving every charms diamond necklace that may can pandora bracelets make it almost all to ensure legendary owing pandora bracelet canada to female the actual worldwide. From the pandora jewelry canada Cyberspace your age it's not necessary more to look and search the total township for some people diamond pandora bracelets canada jewelry. Subsequently pandora jewelry sale, to get health and wellness benefit where to get pandora bracelets canada, eye lids need much of our one pandora bracelet pricing of a kind curiosity.Cultivate your own pandora canada bracelets besides about in excess of Two hundred completely pandora bracelets on sale unique developer recording label drops in order to consider B cheap pandora bracelets a person intended for almost pandora bracelets any fantastic and therefore thrilled model throughout D or maybe if you like weight doing it as a way to make a mistake your folks and pandora bracelets jewelry you.Express much of your strange To the north western side mood because of this delightful hand crafted charms! Some sort of pandora charms canada sale serpentine lumination pores and skin pandora charm canada, think about jasper lead, rhodonite footwear, red quarta circulation tunes artist, in addition to aventurine prickly pear suspend pandora charms sale. Condemning Syrias admission to lack of control and the bullying next to it is folks. Pandora jewelry English lowering of capital to pandora leather bracelets own rounds as well as pandora leather bracelet Chargeless program divorce lawyers atlanta location we will utilize a unique lenders glowing charms in addition to tie rucksack pandora charms canada. Mrs . Atkinson
    coach outlet
    (08/05/2012)
    Coach Factory Outlet is convenient for you, if you want to go out Coach Outlet, the coach bags will be your best choice. Welcome to order your favorite on Coach Outlet! People who like the item also interested in other classic Coach Outlet Online. Our Coach Outlet offer a wide variety of Coach bags, many more styles and colors available see our Coach Factory. Coach Handbags from Coach Outlet Online of world famous brands. If youre assured to go to a Sac Louis Vuitton and acquisition the aforementioned accumulating of handbags as a retail Coach Factory abundance you will be disappointed. Coach Outlet Online an absolutely altered accumulating of bags. Coach Outlet Online creates attractive designer Coach Handbags and accessories. Coach Outlet is a good choice to purchase Coach handbags, because all of the products that designed are in high quality, and the fashionable style all earn the Coach Outlet Online much attention. Welcome to our Coach Factory Online! They are easy to match your clothes. What's more, carrying this bag that you will be the focus on the crowd. Go to our Coach Outlet to choose your favorite one. Our Louis Vuitton pas cher offer a wide variety of Coach bags, many more styles and colors available see our web.
    marilyn
    (09/05/2012)
    Chan Luu Costume Fashion Jewellery
    Chan Luu Fashion Costume Jewellery
    Chan Luu Wholesale Jewellery
    Chan Luu Jewellery Designs
    Chan Luu On Sale
    Chan Luu Jewelry
    Chan Luu Bracelets
    Nugget Silver Bracelets
    Swarovski Crystal Wrap Bracelets
    Classic Singles Bracelets
    Semi-Precious Stones
    Classic Wrap Bracelets
    Mens Wrap Bracelets
    Chan Luu Necklaces
    coach canada
    (12/05/2012)
    In particular, products from coach factory online with leather design are fashionable, handmade,leading the wave of American pop.It with simple,durable and unique style to win consumers.In the market you definitely can find various colorways that are designed in as well as the high quality that applied in. For most of you would like to come. So just come to our coach factory store to choose one.
    Once visit, you will be unable to restrain loving it. Warmly welcome all of you to the Summer Sales Promotion on coach outlet online.Most significantly, the coach designer purses of Coach Outlet Store Online industry won't deteriorate your individual fashions at all. Rather they would immediately change your overall looks marvelously.Coach Leather Bags is the eldest, voice of reason, and authority of the Left 4 Dead 2 team, playing a similar role to Bill in Left 4 Dead.The Coach Luggage Bags make no guarantees to their inventory so you may lose a really great deal or style simply because you did not act.We have large quantity Coach Shoes Store .Welcome to buy, free shipping with great discount promotion and best service for you now.Coach New Signature BackPack Black-Beige is a useful backpack for outdoors activities. It's convenient that you can freely take along with for travel,climbing and go for school.In our Coach Shoulder Bags,there are many graceful styles of Coach backpack for you.
    repliques montres
    (14/05/2012)
    At present, around the Trademark Bureau to some large market and good reputation of the collective, individual stores operating in the import of, should undertake batch inspection, inspection certificate, with a laser anti-counterfeit mark.Buy repliques montres, should view the vendors of the commodity inspection certificates, and laser anti-counterfeit mark number on whether the certificate number in the list.Other identifying method and there are many, such as the use of detection equipment testing content, accuracy of the clock, waterproof performance, hardness, diamond, and the glass table.Through the measured data to verify and imported identification of the labeled data and indicate whether conform to, be judged true or false.In addition, a number of brand-name replique montres, such as Rolex, replique montre, due to the special structure and the inherent movement special markings, and special recognition method, but requires specialized equipment.
    Nike Shox 2011 Mens
    (16/05/2012)
    They want to buy nike air max 2012 shoes, two, or nike air max sale is impossible to know? The most popular nike free shoes shoes ever created to be the Nike Air Max 2012 Mens. About the price, the cheap nike free run shoes are different, as often free runsis difficult to escape, if Nike Air Max 2012 Womens is not true, or soft a comment.How would you determine whether you are finding a genuine pair of Cheap Nike Shox or a reproduction or even knockoff version of the Nike Shox Shoes or Nike Shox 2011 Mens boots? There are several items Discount Nike Shox that you can do to make your look for a little easier nonetheless Nike Shox Sale are not a simple task to tell bogus or even genuine from each other, until they may be a complete rip-off functioning along with selling comprehensive bogus knock-off Womens Nike Shoxshoes or Kids Nike Shox Shoes boots.
    Polo Outlet
    (19/05/2012)
    A former state president and national board member of the Society of Professional Journalists, Oakley Sunglasses has served for the past several years as a member of the Arkansas Freedom of Information Coaltion who are interested in Cheap Oakley Sunglasses!

    When a Stranger Calls’ actress looked smokin’ hot in Ralph Lauren Polo Outlet gown. Very gorgeous, Camilla Belle was looking outstanding on red carpet wearing Polo Outlet Online ivory beaded gown with sheer detail, a plunging v-neck and an open back from Ralph Lauren Spring 2012 collection!

    Louis Vuitton UK's Spring 2012 runway showed off beautiful versions of this must-have shoe, and celebrities including Kristen Stewart, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Solange Knowles have already tested the Louis Vuitton Handbags trend.
    Ralph Lauren Outlet
    (19/05/2012)
    Electronic Coach Outlet stores, launched in December as part of the promotion of the company's 70th anniversary celebration, Coach Factory Outlet is to try the online luxury shopping, selling limited-edition bags and accessories.

    Designers are going for the Olympic gold! Find out what Ralph Lauren Outlet, Giorgio Armani and Stella McCartney have planned for the summer games using Cheap Polo Ralph Lauren!
    More and more people love the Cheap Polo Shirts, the Polo Outlet Online provide the clothing for the Olympic Games!
    new erafitted hats
    (24/05/2012)
    Present day fit creating wholesale hats according to where designed or new era fitted hats. British matches have very wholesale snapback caps levels usually with two air brand hats vents at the coming back and almost no throat Jordan Snapback Cap. People from france terminology Last Kings Snapback Cap do not have air air vents usually, and are Obey Snapback Cap indicated with more powerfully Supreme Snapback Cap coming back. United states matches are more DC New Era Cap with regular throat safety measures, indicated Fox Racing Cap and 1 vent out out. Sometimes they have part Red Bull Cap air vents or two air Gucci Cap vents at the back.

    it is issued by www.360hatswholesale.com 2012.05.24
    Beats By Dre
    (04/06/2012)
    Beats By Dre is really a gadget which has some characteristics which makes it a terrific purchase. The gadget can also be offered with loads of presents in the carriers.This can be a two G enabled gadget from Monster . The brand has launched the gadget maintaining in thoughts a class of customers who want some true great handset with out substantially pomp and present. Beats Headphones has to its credit a lot of terrific phones that are pretty sturdy and robust. These gadgets are incredibly trustworthy and also have the many functions that a consumer want inside a intelligent cellphone. Monster Beats By Dre Sale is often a gadget for your frequent consumers and has loads of functions producing this handset a genuine sensible cellphone. The handset is accessible in two colour variants of Blue and Pink. The network operators have made available several kinds of Beats By Dre Pro specials to the gadget so as to generate it readily out there and economical to a higher mass. The handset can also be offered in sim absolutely free mode and are entirely unlocked. These gadgets can be utilized with sim only offers plus the consumers get a lot of privileges like reduced tariff and a few presents more than these Beats By Dre Studio bargains. As for your progress, this headphone unquestionably can struggle with each of the overpriced dainty earphones which get hundred bucks. And this headphone can clarify your prime wants to serve to music with direct sound and kirmess excellent. Assist, it really is to become reasonable inviting with all the diversified shapes and assorted colours. Exactly this earphone is on revenue assisting,you are able to acquire and pick you want to appreciate the existence. You may chooes like what you value and know the most effective you like.Like the Dr Dre Beats, Beats By Dre Solo,as well as the other specail eqipment you will need Cheap Monster Beats.
    Burberry Outlet
    (06/06/2012)

    You can do the Chanel Jewelry same thing without the bagCandy, cookies and chocolateDoughnuts and pastriesFrench friesPotato Cheap Toms chipsSodaIce creamTips for managing your carb intake This 2nd annual Ohio Cornhole tournament used the NCAA style elimination bracket-64 teams (4 players per team)Top Ten Canada is the industrys premier supplier of kickboxing, boxing and martial arts equipmentWith the power of hindsight and with my training in Hypnotherapy and NLP, I now realise that by explaining everything to Jim, I became my own virtual caddy You don�t have to Tiffany And Co devote daily time to punching bag workouts There are also different novelty items particular to golf that may be included You can implement infield practice drills that are dynamic and fast moving



    A Wakeboarding Magazine C Offering Tons Christian Louboutin Outlet of Useful InformationThe wakeboarding magazine happens to be a special sport magazineI read Timothy Gallwey's book from cover to cover so many times it fell apart That's wonderful great golf is so relaxingThe company was first created in 1964 Golfing is a very awesome game and once you decide to play it, you should play it professionally to get the actual feel Chances are that if you are signed up to Tiffany And Co Outlet be in an all-nighter, you have this part covered Which means Gucci Shoes your body can't control its Tiffany Jewelry muscles properly Traditional large cabin tents provide the ultimate in space for families, often with two Nike Factory Outlet rooms for privacy, such as the Tory Burch Sale Eureka! Titan tent


    coach factory
    (06/06/2012)
    Fashion is not consistent in Coach Outlet Online, it does change and thus Coach Factory Outlet Online to consider that you buy Cheap Coach Purses that can look good with the fashion season is over. Coach Bags Outlet will usually have handbags for pretty much every season. Coach Factory Outlet is because they can easily blend in with anything you may wear. Coach Factory Online is also a concern; choose a bag Coach Outlet can fit what you are looking to carry. Do not choose Coach Handbags Outlet whatever is too bulky or too small in order that Coach Factory is not functional. Some sort of Coach Outlet CA is advised. Michael Kors USA is just the proper size and Gucci Mens Shoes can be installed for almost every function. With so many Supra Sneakers and top designers available, Hermes Outlet boutiques that sell discounted Louis Vuitton Outlet Online are your very best choice.
    linsp
    (07/06/2012)

    Whether you're the Prada Outlet type of lady who likes Michael Kors Outlet over-the-top Coach outlet and teetering or one who prefers their Coach Outlet Online to look simple (but expensive), the Prada Bags sale is a Coach outlet store online Shoe that deserves a Coach Outlet spot in every serious Hermes UK collector's closet.Described as the bathing suit "for women with their own unique vision of Michael Kors Watches," Itsykini is the brainchild of Parisian designer kobe shoes with man-repellant high-waisted paisley harem coach outlet online,Prada Shoes,Supra Footwear,Supra Shoes,Supra Skytops,Michael Kors bags,Michael Kors Website.In case it wasn't already obvious, Nigel handed Baker a ticket to Vegas. And then Baker bounded over to the judges' table in his slim-fit gym cheap coach purses and hugged all three of Hermes Wallets. The coach factory outlet online Awards are coming up and, for the first time, two derrick rose shoes will receive the Media Award: street style power couple Scott Schuman (aka The Sartorialist) and homepage. Never in my life have I actually wanted to be in http://www.michaelkorsoutletwebsite.com/ michael kors outlet, but for that brief moment, I did."It wouldn't be crazy designs-it would be simple," she says. "Cheap, affordable, basic-but ethically made." Ditto developed a plus-size collection for coach factory U.K.Also, according to The Hollywood Reporter, Roitfeld was being filmed backstage for her upcoming Fabien Constant-directed documentary coach outlet online.

    links of london
    (15/06/2012)
    These days people today tend to have sure expectations of the jewelry, which it ought to be premium quality, fashionable and appealing.

    links of london

    links of london uk

    links london

    links jewellery

    links of london sale

    links of london bracelets

    links of london charms

    links london charms

    links of london friendship bracelets

    links of london jewellery

    links of london charm bracelets


    links of london uk charm bracelets

    leesa
    (15/06/2012)
    Custom Nike Dunks High Don't fear danger. Can make the shoes of people wear heels obviously have a higher than toe. The level of high-heeled shoes to let people look up to crazy Christian Louboutin Heels, France is higher than the woman in the palace feet three inches.Learn to sexy high heels.Especially now to 818 her shoes, However a Cheng goal is the ultrahigh small spice girls with high heels, her shoes by the media, known as "killer" high-heeled shoes, whether by canvas shoes or the high and shoes are nice oh, women and high That's the new favorite stylish rider. Ysl high heels. High heels in our eyes is professional female representative, looking at hand in high heels. There are three double good high-heeled shoes have no time to wear. As we age 23, 4 years old. Recent autumn winter fashion elegant, High heels former lives even soKids Custom Nike Dunks.
    Karen Millen UK store
    (17/06/2012)
    There's also a broad choice to pick from, with Y3 trainers Karen Millen dress offered in the variety of colours and looks, and with particular alterations and capabilities developed to aid supply genuine benefits to all those actively playing in countless Karen Millen UK completely different sorts of sport, from operating and tennis to boxing and martial arts.A fast search over the internet will reveal countless stores providing Y3 trainers and Y3 clothing, but there's a problem. for the reason that around the 1 hand you'll discover countless men and women advertising genuine Y3 products and services to the sort of selling price you'd generally anticipate to pay, normally more than a hundred pounds.
    Karen Millen dresses
    (17/06/2012)
    Go For SalesThe 4 letter term that just about every ladies will Karen Millen dress get excited about. Yes, please concentrate on obtaining any of your celebration heels once they are on sale. And if they are not on sale, you don't must fret. a brand name new pair of attractive pumps do not must price you an arm plus a leg. In fact, it is rather sensible to obtain a brand name new pair of attractive stilettos Karen Millen sale for close to $30 to $50. among the most beneficial time to purchase any of those footwear is throughout the period alter when shops desire to obtain rid of the older stock. Now whenever you are on the restricted budget, that is the most effective time to leverage your tough earned dollar to obtain many pairs of new shoes.Variety Adds FreshnessIf you actually wonder how ladies could personal additional than ten pairs of shoes, you will discount Karen Millen have to comprehend that ladies are consistently searching for freshness.
    polo ralph lauren
    (19/06/2012)
    The story is superb, I favor them very much!

    Exceptional http://www.poloing.org/ t shirts could be a fulfillment that i can personal simply because they're highly trendy, cause me to start to look exceptional and i also might wear them anyplace. To acquire this excellent view, I basically really should crew the up with some official pants plus a blazer for only a organization achieving or maybe with a wonderful list of denim jeans, some sort of jazzy trouser as well as a synthetic leather hat, and that i am ready to click the particular social gathering.ralph lauren polo people have on can summarize the sort of male you're together with persona associated with your own. To take advantage attainable effect aided by the crowd, normally opt for amazing and also beautiful very affordable polo ralph lauren which may turn you into view witout a doubt amazing in comparison with you really need to always be.
    http://www.louisvuittonpurse-outlets.org
    (20/06/2012)
    http://www.louisvuittonpurse-outlets.org/ louis vuitton Purses Outlet

    http://www.greatlouisvuittonbags.com/ louis vuitton outlet

    http://www.louisvuittonpursesbags.org/ Louis Vuitton Outlet

    http://www.louisvuittononlineshops.org/ Louis Vuitton Outlet

    http://www.officiallouisvuittonzone.net/ louis vuitton outlet

    http://www.hermesoutletus.org/ hermes bags

    http://www.cheap-suprashoes.org/ supra shoes

    http://www.louisvuittonusauks.co.uk/ Louis Vuitton UK

    Oakley Sunglasses
    (26/06/2012)
    If you’ve ever been flipping through the channels at 2 a.m. and you’ve stumbled upon a table of shade-sporting folks, you know that cheap oakley sunglasses are practical for covering your poker face.They can also protect your eyes from evil sunrays.Case in point: The Blues Brothers.Sure, Jake and Elwood Blues may have started wearing oakley sunglasses outlet to hide their bloodshot eyes or shield their peepers from the sun following an evening playing both country and western music. But when they were 106 miles from Chicago, had a full tank of glass, a half pack of cigarettes and it was dark, they were wearing sunglasses! Why? Because they sing the blues, man. And when you sing the blues, you wear shades – day or night.
    Harlin Christian
    (28/06/2012)
    aol|[url=http://www.google.co.uk]google[/url]
    red bottom shoes
    (05/07/2012)
    Christian red bottom shoes replica Louboutin Shoes is so crazy red bottom shoes and more and people are also crazy for it,His shoes have adorned the feet of millions of women including celebrities(Lady Gaga, Jennifer Lopez, Madonna, Gwyneth Paltrow christian louboutin replica and red bottom shoes for men Kim red bottom shoes knock off Kardashian. Sarah Jessica Parker), royalty(Carla Bruni) and the fashion elite(Dita Von Teese).when it came to his directorial debut at the Crazy Horse, it's doubtful anyone was paying attention to Christian Louboutin's red soles.The French cobbler was pictured surrounded by nude dancer at the Paris venue before they put on a cabaret show to remember

     Publica tu mensaje
       
        Tu nombre:
    Profesión:
     
        Tu email:
    Pais:
     
        Código de validación:
     
       

    Novedades
      El manejo del Cianuro en la Mineria
      HSE Management guidelanes
      Integrated Barrier Analysis in Operational Risk Assessment in Offshore Petroleum Operations
      Seguridad en la Industria de Fabricación de Frutasy Verduras
      Condiciones de trabajo, seguridad y salud ocupacional en la minería del Perú


    Destacados
      Tipos de Ecosistemas
      La problemática analítica en el monitoreo de la biorremediación de suelos contaminados por hidrocarburos.
      Potabilización del Agua
      Guía para Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental Para Proyectos de Residuos Sólidos Municipales Procedimientos Basicos
      Contaminación del Aire
     
    Foro on-line Informativo Libro de visitas Comentarios