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  Inicio » Informes » Ecología » Ecología » Proyecto de estudio de la ballena francaaustral...
 



Esta nota corresponde al Número 34 - Jun/1997 de la Revista Gerencia Ambiental


Proyecto de estudio de la ballena franca austral
Editorial

En los últimos años, comenzó a desarrollarse el uso de satélites para realizar el monitoreo de ballenas equipadas con transmisores. Esta herramienta abre una puerta de nuevas posibilidades y resulta de vital importancia para el diseño de medidas de manejo y conservación de estas especies.



Cada año, unos 600 ejemplares de la ballena franca austral llegan hasta las costas de la Península de Valdés en Chubut. Esta zona es considerada una de las principales áreas de reproducción y crianza de la especie.

El fenómeno, que se registra entre junio y diciembre, parece ampararse en la Ley 23.094 que declaró en 1984 a estos cetáceos monumento natural en la Argentina.

Ante la necesidad de obtener información sobre sus hábitos para poder protegerlas, se puso en marcha un proyecto que las investigará vía satélite. El seguimiento se llevará a cabo mediante dos formas de acción: por un lado, se implantará en el cuerpo de las ballenas un equipo que registrará información geográfica, biológica y oceánica y la transmitirá por medios satelitales a estaciones de monitoreo en tierra.

Con este fin, se utilizará la futura red de satélites argentinos: SPT1 (Satélite de Prueba Tecnológica 1), SPT2, Serie SAC (Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas) y SAOCOM (Satélite de Observación y Comunicaciones).

Por el otro, a través de imágenes satelitales de alta resolución en los rangos óptico (visible) y de microondas (radar) se detectarán tanto manadas como ejemplares individuales y también condiciones de parámetros oceánicos de superficie.

El dispositivo, que se ubicará en el cuerpo del cetáceo, consiste en unidades de adquisición de información: profundímetro, termógrafo, unidad de procesamiento y almacenamiento de datos, sistema de aplicación y fijación, contenedor estanco y resistente a impactos para proteger el equipamiento.

En relación a este equipo de rastreo, existen dos alternativas: transmisores GPS (Sistema Global de Posicionamiento) y radiobalizas, cuya posición es determinada por los satélites mediante un sistema de emisión por código (similar a los sistemas ARGOS y COSPAS-SARSAT de búsqueda y rescate).

Los prototipos de equipos no tendrán efecto nocivo alguno sobre el animal. Además, se estudia la posibilidad de que el aparato implantado se desprenda automáticamente una vez finalizado el período de seguimiento.

En cuanto a la información recopilada, esta será transmitida a bases terrestres, que a la vez la distribuirán a los diferentes centros de estudio para su posterior análisis.

Descripción de la metodología

En la etapa piloto o experimental se registrarán tiempo, posicionamiento, identificación del ejemplar por código numérico, profundidad y temperatura del mar. La frecuencia de toma de datos será de un minuto y se almacenará la información de las últimas 24 horas. Pasos que se realizarán en las ballenas durante tres temporadas reproductivas.

Para implementar técnicamente el programa, la Argentina cuenta con dos estaciones receptoras terrenas ubicadas en la provincia de Córdoba (Falda del Carmen) y en Tierra del Fuego.

A partir de esta imágenes satelitales, obtenidas con Radares de Apertura Sintética (SAR) como los actualmente disponibles ERS-1 y 2, JERS y RADARSAT se obtendrá información de grupos de ballenas en navegación o zonas de concentración de ejemplares por modificación de la textura del mar. A través de un procesamiento subpixel se podrá llegar incluso a la detección de ejemplares individuales.

En caso de que se cuente con sensores en el rango visible de suficiente resolución espacial, podrán ser utilizados los datos proporcionados por ellos.

Los resultados obtenidos durante esta etapa se volcarán en la estrategia a seguir: cantidad de ejemplares a los que se les implantará el equipo, momento, lugar y tipo de animal, teniendo en cuenta sexo, edad y características particulares.

Paralelamente, se emplearán las facilidades de recepción y distribución de imágenes de satélites de sensado remoto de alta resolución previstas por el Plan Espacial Nacional. A esta utilización tecnológica, se le incorporará el diseño de un software específico para extraer la información necesaria para su estudio.

El proyecto fue preparado por la Secretaría de Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Sustentable (SRNyDS) junto con la Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) y la participación de la Comisión Asesora Honoraria del Monumento Natural Ballena Franca Austral (CAH).

Según un informe de la Secretaría, el programa se desarrollará en etapas a lo largo de 5 años e insumirá un costo total estimado en 1.950.000 pesos que se destinarán a viajes, investigaciones, costos de equipos, instrumental, pruebas y desarrollo.




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